Abstracts of published papers

Málková,J., Matějka,K., Krtičková,M., Zikmund,M. (2002): Vegetation dynamics in dwarf pine ecosystems in the eastern Giant Mts. - Opera Corcontica, Vrchlabí, 38(2001): 123-148.

The relationship between Pinus mugo and several species (Carex bigelowii, Hieracium alpinum agg., Pulsatilla scherfelii and Calluna vulgaris) on the spatial base was studied in the alpine tundra localities reforested by dwarf pine in eastern part of the Krkonoše Mts. The young dwarf pine plantations grow relative fast and come be vital under favourable conditions. Annual increase in shrub width varies in range 12 to 35 per-cents in stands of age to 35 years. Dwarf pine stands are relatively opened, size of the vacant gaps is sufficient for an original plant microcoenose development. Changes in the plant coenoses were described by the repeated relevés use. They documented a decrease of cover or a disappearing set of species, including protected ones (e.g. Primula minima, Huperzia selago, Hypochoeris uniflora, Gentiana asclepiadea, Arnica montana, Diphasiastrum alpinum subsp. companatum) mainly in the closed Pinus mugo stands.
Carex bigelowii is species with low coverage under dwarf pine and in nearest belt by the shrubs. Number of plants increased with the distance from the nearest pine shrub.
A light ecotonal effect by Hieracium alpinum agg. is shown by the dwarf pine periphery. It can be marked within a close belt - the species indicate an accumulation of individuals and flowering plants in the shrub surroundings. The highest number of plants occurs on places with distance of 25-100 cm from the nearest shrub. The maximal accumulation of flowers was within places of distance to 150 cm. The share of browsed plants increases gradually with distance from the nearest pine shrub. There are only a few plants as undergrowth in shrubs of dwarf pine. The parallel plots without dwarf pine show more plants comparing plots of pine plantation.
There is an ecotonal effect within a radius of 50 cm from dwarf pine by Pulsatilla scherfelii. The species show a lower dependence of occurrence on the pine shrub-plant distance, nevertheless it is statistically significant. A low accumulation of plants with distance from shrubs to 1 m was visible. The highest number of flowers can be found in low dwarf pine stands with gaps or on a close peripheral belt of the pine shrubs. Number of browsed plants was higher in free plot comparing dwarf pine undergrowth.
Calluna vulgaris is a species often occurring together with young dwarf pine shrubs. The most vital heather grows in radius of 50-75 cm from pine shrubs. The highest coverage of flowering heather was on places with distance above 125 cm from shrubs.
It is suggested to adapt management of the dwarf pine stands with regards to the results: it is necessary to guarantee a sufficient free space (gaps) among individual shrubs of dwarf pine. The gaps enable development of shade (and other pine influences) intolerant species.

Key words: alpine tundra, Calluna vulgaris, Carex bigelowii, dynamics, Hieracium alpinum agg., horizontal growth, management, Pinus mugo, Pulsatilla scherfelii, shrub-herb influence, spatial structure